Adipocytes, Adipose, Obesity, Fat-Cells, Mangosteen, Weight Loss - Page 2

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Shed Pounds by Meratrim Cellular Fat Storage - Page 2
By Kirk Stokel - Reprinted by permission from Bill Faloon of The Life Extension Foundation

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How These Plant Extracts Combat Adipocyte Overload

The novel blend of S. indicus and mangosteen extracts inhibit expansion of new fat cells while promoting breakdown of lipids in existing adipocytes.  Laboratory studies demonstrate the following molecular mechanisms that enable these two plants to combat adipocyte overload:

1. Adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP):  Stimulates lipid accumulation and lipid droplet formation in fat cells.13,14  Reducing levels of ADRP is considered a novel strategy for preventing or reducing dangerous fat accumulation, especially in the liver.12,13,15,16

2. Adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 4:  Also known as aP2, this transports fatty acids into fat cells for storage.  Increased levels of aP2 are associated with lipid profile abnormalities that lead to atherosclerosis; they may also be an independent risk factor for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.8,11,17-25

3. Perilipin:  A protein that coats lipid droplets in adipocytes, thereby protecting their fat contents from being broken down.  Meratrim perilipin thus promotes lipolysis, contributing to a reduction in adipocyte fat content.9,26-28

4. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1):  Produced primarily by endothelial (artery-lining) cells, PAI-1 plays a key role in blood clot formation and breakdown.29  It is also secreted by adipose tissue.30  High levels of PAI-1 thus correlate directly with abdominal obesity, body weight, and body mass index or BMI.31  In the presence of this novel plant extract blend, PAI-1 levels were ultimately found to decline significantly.1

5. PPAR-gamma (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma):  A primary metabolic sensor that triggers adipogenesis in the presence of excess calories.32  Reducing PPAR-gamma activity helps prevent fat cells from becoming bloated and dysfunctional. 7,9,14,33-36

6. Beta-3-adrenergic receptor (3AR):  Gene expression for this recently discovered receptor was increased by the dual plant extract.  It regulates fat breakdown (lipolysis) when an energy boost is needed.  Switching on the beta-3 receptor spontaneously and dramatically increases fat cells energy expenditure, burning up unused fat in the process.6,37-41

Researchers have demonstrated that the six genomic pathways involved in fat cell formation and breakdown (described above) are favorably modulated when exposed to S. indicus and mangosteen extracts.17  This provides a scientific basis to explain the anti-obesity effects observed in human clinical trials.

Change in Body Weight - FASEB J. April 2011; 25:(Meeting Abstract Supplement) 601.9
Adapted from: FASEB J. April 2011; 25:(Meeting Abstract Supplement) 601.9. Presented at Experimental Biology 2011, Washington, DC. April 10, 2011 - Program No. 601.9, Poster No. A278.
Waist and Hip Circumference - Presented at Experimental Biology 2011, Washington, DC.
Adapted from: FASEB J. April 2011; 25:(Meeting Abstract Supplement) 601.9.  Presented at Experimental Biology 2011, Washington, DC. April 10, 2011 - Program No. 601.9, Poster No. A278.

Weight Loss Findings in Humans
Human weight loss studies comprise an active arm that received the potentially effective fat-reducing agent and a similar group that received an inactive placebo.

To evaluate the effects of these two plant extracts, sixty obese adults were recruited and divided into two groups. One arm of 30 patients functioned as the placebo group while a second group of 30 patients received 800 mg per day of a combination of the two plant extracts.  Both groups followed a 2,000-calorie- per-day diet and were asked to walk 30 minutes five days a week.

At the end of eight weeks, the group receiving the two plant extracts showed the following improvements:1

  1. Reduction in total body weight of 11.4 pounds.  This was 3.7 times greater than the placebo group.
  2. Reduction of 4.05 inches in the abdomen.  This was 2 times greater than the placebo group.
  3. Reduction in body mass index (BMI) of 2.05.  A decrease 3.9 times greater than the placebo group.

This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the kind the FDA mandates before it approves new drugs.  The charts on this page reveal the magnitude of the weight loss and belly fat reduction that occurred in the group receiving the dual plant extract compared to placebo.1  (See Charts 1 and 2)

In addition to the favorable results seen at eight weeks, researchers were impressed with the reduction in waist and hip circumference, as well as lost body weight that occurred within the first 14 days!  In fact after only two weeks, the average weight reduction was 4.6 pounds.1

At eight weeks, the dual plant extract group showed reduction in the waist-to-hip ratio that was 2.2 times greater than the placebo group.  This is an important improvement as it indicates dangerous visceral belly fat is being lost.

These findings are supported by a second, similarly designed trial involving 60 obese subjects.  They were divided into three groups that consisted of a placebo arm, an active arm receiving one plant extract, and another active arm that received a dual plant extract.  All participants followed a 2,000-calorie-per-day diet and were asked to walk for 30 minutes five times a week for 8 weeks.13

After eight weeks the group receiving the dual plant extract experienced statistically significant changes in their abdominal circumference, total body weight, and hip circumference similar to those seen in the first study mentioned above.13

These confirmatory findings indicate that this novel dual plant extract may enable aging humans to safely shed unwanted body fat stores.  No major adverse events or side effects were reported in either study.

Protection against Coronary Thrombosis
Most sudden death heart attacks occur when a blood clot forms in a coronary artery, choking off oxygenated blood to a portion of the heart muscle.

A protein called plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) inhibits the normal breakdown of arterial blood clots.29  High levels of PAI-1 are observed in obese individuals and are associated with increased heart attack risk.30,31

When studying the dual plant extract, researchers measured serum levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1).  Those receiving the dual plant extract showed a 24.3% reduction in dangerous PAI-1 levels, while the placebo group showed a 2.4% increase.1 (See Chart 3)

Those who supplemented with the dual plant extract had a 60% drop in triglyceride levels compared to baseline.1

Plasminogen Chart 3
Adapted from: FASEB J. April 2011; 25:(Meeting Abstract Supplement) 601.9.  Presented at Experimental Biology 2011, Washington, DC. April 10, 2011 - Program No. 601.9, Poster No. A278.

Subjects given the dual plant extract increased levels of the key metabolic hormone adiponectin.1  Adiponectin regulates how much sugar is in your bloodstream and how quickly your body breaks down fat.  In terms of fat loss, high adiponectin levels are desirable.  Higher levels of adiponectin are associated with decreased deposits of body fat and a reduced susceptibility to diabetes and metabolic syndrome.42

The dual plant extract group showed trends toward reduced glucose and cholesterol, which are expected to occur in response to loss of belly fat and body weight.1

The loss of visceral fat in the dual extract group -- 4.05 inches, amounting to twice the decline observed in the placebo group -- is compelling.1  This is important because visceral fat releases a storm of pro-inflammatory cell-signaling molecules.  Excess visceral fat is a known risk factor for a number of serious health threats, ranging from systemic inflammation to increased risk of hypertension, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, and coronary artery disease.43-45

Taken together, these findings indicate markedly reduced vascular disease risk in obese individuals taking 800 mg a day of this dual plant extract.

Summary
Obesity arises from the increased size of individual adipocytes (fat cells) due to enhanced lipid (fat) accumulation.  It worsens as greater numbers of pre-adipocytes transform into dysfunctional, bloated adipocytes.

The novel blend of plant extracts described in this article favorably influences six distinct pathways by which fat cells trigger weight gain.

In cell culture, these plant extracts reduce the ability of progenitor fat cells (pre-adipocytes) to transform into bloated fat cells.  These studies also show that components of this dual plant extract reduce the amount of fatty acids taken up by adipocytes (adipogenesis) and facilitate the breakdown (lipolysis) of fat stored in existing adipocytes.

In a placebo-controlled clinical trial involving obese humans, this blend of S. indicus and mangosteen plant extracts safely induced weight loss of 11.4 pounds, along with a decline of 2.05 in body mass index (BMI) and a reduction of 4.05 inches in harmful visceral fat.1

While our medical establishment has failed to offer any safe, long-term, practical solutions for todays obesity epidemic, natural agents are now available that substantively augment the effects of a sensible weight loss program.

If you have any questions on the scientific content of this article, please call a Life Extension Health Advisor at 1-866-864-3027.

Potent Anti-Diabetic Properties

Long prized in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for their weight loss-inducing properties, scientists confirmed that extracts from Sphaeranthus indicus (S. indicus) and the mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana) exert an anti-diabetic effect in humans.

S. indicus has been used for centuries to combat diabetic symptoms, protect the liver, quell inflammation, boost mood, and aid in digestion.46

Diabetic lab animals treated with S. indicus extracts exhibit substantial reductions in blood glucose, along with enhanced liver and pancreatic function.47,48  In insulin-resistant mice, S. indicus extracts lower blood sugar and triglyceride levels while facilitating more efficient uptake of glucose in muscle tissue.49  Diabetic animals treated with S. indicus exhibit significantly lower levels of tissue oxidation,50 a major underlying factor in most life-threatening diabetic complications.48,49

The mangosteen is an edible fruit that grows throughout South Asia.  Like S. indicus, parts of the fruit and its juice have been used for centuries to combat diabetes and obesity.  One vital mechanism is its ability to block the critical metabolic enzyme alpha-amylase that breaks down starches into sugar.51  Alpha-amylase blockers limit the spike in blood glucose levels that would normally follow a carbohydrate-rich meal.  Mangosteen extracts also inhibit enzymes involved in synthesizing fat molecules.33  It is this combination of blocking sugar uptake and blocking fat production that accounts in part for its weight loss -- inducing properties.

Mangosteen extracts have an additional, noteworthy benefit.  They have been shown to effectively limit the inflammation that typically accompanies fat cell accumulation.6,52  This inflammation contributes directly to insulin resistance.  In one compelling study, levels of the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein declined significantly53 in obese individuals consuming mangosteen juice after only 8 weeks.

 

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