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Smart Eats, Smart Supplements, and Smart Exercise
by Dusty R. Green, M.Ed. -  Pictures
ISBN 0-9655254-0-6 -- Copyright 1997-2011

We apologize but this book is out of print.

The following information has been edited directly from the book. The page numbers refer to the actual pages in the book, therefore you will only be able to reference to those said page numbers with book in hand.

All rights reserved, which includes the right to reproduce this book or portions thereof in any form whatsoever except as provided by the U.S. Copyright Law and except for brief quotations; otherwise, written permission from the author or DG[at] (anti-spam - replace [at] with @).


Smart Eats
Eating smart is the first step toward good health.

Eating smart may mean you will have to make a slight change in your eating habits but, for most of us, that will be a positive change.  You will be surprised just how quick, cheap, and easy it is to eat five meals a day.

The eating plan below is a prototype for you to follow.  Adjust the calorie numbers according to your weight, which you will find here.  As your weight changes (if that is your desire), your numbers will change accordingly.

Dusty's Lowfat Fare

Breakfast – All Bran, Fiber One, or any other high fiber cereal mixed with your favorite cereal.  Use 1/2 percent or skim milk.  This combination will be 300-400 calories with about 3-4 percent of your calories from fat.  If you do not like cereal, are lactose intolerant or, are just opposed to consuming cow's milk, you can get generous amounts of fiber and potassium from most fruits and vegetables.  See page 15 for more information on fiber.

2nd meal, 3 hours later - 1 sports bar with water; 220-300 calories; 8-13 percent of calories from fat.

3rd meal, 3 hours later - Healthy Choice chicken fajitas with water; 200 calories; 14 percent of calories from fat.

4th meal, 3 hours later - Tuna sandwich on wheat mixed with no fat dressing and relish; one banana and water; 300 calories; 5 percent of calories from fat.

5th meal, 3 hours later - Large baked potato with no fat sour cream, dressing, or salsa, and no fat cheese with 8 ounces of skim milk: 400 calories with 6 percent of calories from fat.  Always include fruits and/or vegetables in at least two of the five meals.  They contain large amounts of fiber and potassium.  More on that later.  "Pig out" on the weekends or any 2 days of the week eating high fat foods if you like, but stay within the range of calories consistent with your body size (see below) to lose or maintain body fat.

I Don't Have Time To Eat That Often!
Many people think they do not have time to eat five times a day.  These meals and the ones on page 32 are quick and easy to prepare.  Eating them takes only 10 to 15 minutes.  Most people have several breaks during the day that can accommodate this eating style and most of these meals can be carried in your pocket, purse, or sports bag.  If you eat breakfast and the fifth meal at home, then you have only three meals to eat at work or school.



Why So Many Meals?
Those of you who eat only one, two or three meals per day ride the blood sugar roller coaster to ill health.  During and immediately following any big meal, you feel "up."  Then one to three hours later you feel "down" and feel like napping.  Many of us have been raised to believe that eating two or three heavy meals per day is the healthy way to consume food.  Unfortunately, we have been misled.  Hypoglycemia, diabetes, or just the blahs can be the result.  Eating smaller meals three hours apart works wonders for blood sugar levels.  It also lowers stomach volume and encourages our brain to release growth -- our notorious "fountain of youth."  Growth encourages our bodies to put on muscle and drop body fat.  This also allows the stomach to feel full on smaller amounts of food.  Those who eat one and/or two meals per day particularly send the body a message that it is being starved, and it tends to hold on to as much body fat as possible.  As a one or two mealer per day, you will continue to have a hard time getting rid of body fat or maintaining a healthy body fat percentage.  Three meals per day is not quite as bad, but you still experience the biological pitfalls of the rise and fall in blood sugar and erratic release of insulin.

Consider our ancestors who used to hunt for and/or grow their own food.  Most of them ate frequently and expended a lot of energy hunting and dragging it around.  When they did not find it for a day or so (an unintentional fast), their bodies had to be able to survive.  The survival mechanism is the process that the body utilizes by holding on to body fat.  That same process is a part of our biological make-up today.  The problem is that most of us "fast" every day of the week by only consuming one to three meals per day in our traditional style.  As a result, most of us carry dangerously high amounts of stored body fat which can lead to many unhealthy conditions.

Growth . . . The True Fountain Of Youth?
I am often asked "Isn't it bad to eat in the evening hours?"  Maybe, maybe not.  Approximately 30 minutes after falling asleep (one of the best times for release -- particularly on an empty stomach), your pituitary gland releases growth into the bloodstream.  Growth release helps the body use fat for fuel, build muscle, enhance the power of the immune system, and expedite the healing process.  For most people, the age range of 25-30 is significant concerning growth.  The ability of the pituitary gland declines dramatically around the age range of 25-30 and we typically begin to experience fat accumulation and lower energy levels during that time of our lives.

Exercising large muscle groups (legs and buttocks), aerobically and anaerobically, encourages growth release.  Food in the stomach at exercise time and bedtime reduces the effectiveness of the pituitary in releasing growth.  If you are consuming 200-500 calories (depending on your weight) at or around 9 p.m., your stomach is empty by 11 o'clock to midnight.  On the traditional 800-1,500 calories per evening meal, your stomach empties much later which can interfere with the nighttime function of the pituitary.  As you change your lifestyle in as many ways possible that taps into the pituitary gland system, you are well on your way in experiencing many positive changes in your life.

Chapters 3-11 can be previewed in Table of Contents


Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Your calorie intake numbers directly reflect your calorie expenditure numbers.  If your intake is 1,560 calories per day and your expenditure is 1,560 calories per day, you will neither gain nor lose body fat.  Most of us did a facsimile of that cycle through our teen years and twenties.  Then we moved on to desk jobs and sedentary life styles coupled with the slowdown in growth production, and started "putting it on."  The following list accounts for all of your daily sedentary activities (sleeping, getting out of bed, eating, sitting at your desk, walking to your car, driving it, computer tasks, having sex, talking on the phone, etc.).  You burn calories every minute of the day.  The table below represents your resting metabolic rate, or what some call your basal metabolic rate (BMR).  I have added a factor to the BMR to account for all of our sedentary activities.  You will use this number as your constant.  If you weigh 150 pounds, your constant is 1,560 calories.  As you lose weight to 145 pounds, your constant changes to 1,490.  Let us say that you like your current weight of 150 pounds, and you walk briskly for an hour six days a week.  You could consume your BMR of 1,560 + 400 (see exercise calorie chart on pages 149-150), totaling 1,960 calories for each of those six days and not gain any body fat.  You could consume only 1,560 calories on day seven without gaining body fat since you do not walk on that day.

Muscle Is Metabolically Active, Fat Is Not
Your numbers are not always going to be exact.  Researchers have known for years that caloric intake and expenditure numbers are just scientific guesses, but they are the best tool we have.  So if you are off 10 or 20 calories here or there, it is of minor concern.  A muscular 150 pound lean bodybuilder has a little higher BMR than a 150 pound overfat person.  Most of us, however, are somewhere in between, which is what the numbers below estimate.  You will find out how lean or overfat you are with the use of inexpensive skin fold calipers.  If you are lean and muscular, then you may want to add 100 calories or so to your BMR.

Mental calculations are much easier if you round numbers up or down.  If your BMR is 930, use 900. If it is 860, use 900.  If you have inadvertently misfigured a pound after a month or so, no big deal.  Let us say that you run a cash register for a living and you are off $5 one way or the other after a month -- no great concern.  The next month when you are off $100, you become concerned.  After the third month if you are off $500, your boss is seriously considering firing you.  You get motivated quickly to find out what the problem is.  Find it, make the adjustment, and all is well.

Your BMR -- Table 12-1

Weight in pounds BMR plus sedentary factor
90 720
95 790
100 860
105 930
110 1,000
115 1,070
120 1,140
125 1,210
130 1,280
135 1,350
140 1,420
145 1,490
150 1,560
155 1,630
160 1,700
165 1,770
170 1,840
175 1,910
180 1,980
185 2,050
190 2,120
195 1,902
200 2,260
205 2,330
210 2,400
215 2,470
220 2,540
225 2,610
230 2,680
235 2,750
240 2,820
245 2,890
250 2,960
255 3,030
260 3,100
265 3,170
270 3,240
275 3,310
280 3,380
285 3,450
290 3,520
295 3,590
300 3,660

All of the BMR numbers are in increments of 70.  If you weigh 85 pounds, take 70 calories from the 720 BMR for your constant.  If you weigh 305 pounds, then add 70 to the 3,660 for your constant and so on.

The Bottom Line is Calories In and Calories Out
If you have a caloric deficit at the end of the week, then you have lost some body fat.  If it happens to be a 3,500 calorie deficit, then you have lost a pound.  3,500 calories makes up approximately 1 pound of body fat.  In a "New York Times Today" article, May 25, 1999, Dr. Margo Denke, a professor of medicine at UT Southwestern in Dallas, stated, No matter what anyone tells you, it's calories that count.  Carefully controlled metabolic studies show that it doesn't matter where extra calories come from.  Eat more calories than you expend and you'll gain weight.

The actual foundation of The Atkin's Diet, The Zone, South Beach Diet, Jenny Craig, Weight Watchers, NutriSystem, and all the rest, are successful due to creating calorie deficits.  There is just no way around it.  For example, eating 1,000 calories per day of fat and protein is, pure and simple -- 1,000 calories.  Eating 1,000 calories of carbohydrates per day is, pure and simple -- 1,000 calories.  Try it either way and you will discover that you will lose weight as you are burning, for example, 1,500 calories per day.  Burning 1,500 calories per day while consuming 1,000 of anything creates a 500 calorie deficit per day equating to 3,500 calories deficit (1 pound of body fat) in a 7 day period ... no matter how you combine foods.

Chapters 13-18 can be previewed in the Table of Contents



Smart Supplements
This section provides information about the best I have found.  LEM stands for Life Extension Mix.  It contains the amounts of every vitamin, mineral, amino acid, enzyme, and herb (VMAAEH) that scientific literature advocates.  These supplements are the cleanest and most cost effective per gram in the world.  It is not likely you'll find LEM in retail stores (drug, grocery, health food, or multi-level companies).  Other companies such as Twin Lab and Vitamin Research Products sell comparable products, however, I find Life Extension Mix more comprehensive and cost effective.

As you read, compare the full dose amount of vitamin C, for example, in LEM (approximately 2,500 mg) to any other multi-formula.  Theragran, Centrum, One-A-Day, and GNC are very expensive when compared on a cost per gram basis.  Mannatech, Amway, Stanley, New Vision, and all other multi-level brands are also very expensive when compared on a cost per gram basis.  Another problem with commercial varieties is the "short-change tactic."  You are not getting the optimum amounts your body needs of all the micro-nutrients for the same price you pay for LEM and others mentioned here.  Most commercial varieties do not base their formulas on solid scientific evidence.  Many are known to combine very low amounts of the beneficial nutrients and high amounts of harmful toxic compounds such as coal tars, arsenic, lead, shellac, etc.  If the company you buy your supplements from does not use High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) or cannot supply you an independent laboratory analysis of their product, there is a high probability you are consuming unnecessary binders/fillers and/or other compounds.  For more information on how commercial and multi-level companies operate, click here.

Units of measurement for supplements are as follows:

  • International Unit (IU) - Measures biological activity or potency, which is different from weight measurements shown below.  IU is used for fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K, however, grams, milligrams, and micrograms can also be used for A, D, E and K.

  • Grams (gm.) - Weight measurement: 1/28th of an ounce.

  • Milligrams (mg.) - 1/1000 of a gram.

  • Micrograms (mcg.) - 1/1000 of a milligram.

Males and Females 18 years of age and older
Life Extension Mix (LEM).  Build up to the full menu if you are just starting out or if you have been taking weaker supplements.  Dedicated Life Extensionists consume the full menu which is 9 tablets per day - 3 as the first dose, 3 more 6 hours later, and the last 3 in another  6 hours.  

Or, if you choose capsules -- 5 as the first dose, 5 more 6 hours later, and the last 4 in another  6 hours.

If you choose powder -- 1 scoop in AM, 1 scoop 6 hours later, and 1 scoop another 6 hours later.

An example of how to build-up:

1 tablet every 5-6 hours the first week.
2 tablets every 5-6 hours the second week.
3 tablets every 5-6 hours the third week until forever.

This formula comes with or without extra niacin and with or without copper.  See vitamin B3, page 89 for more information.  The 90 plus nutrients in LEM and amounts of each are discussed completely in chapter 20 based on the consumption of the full menu.

Bone Restore, or Calcium Citrate
6 capsules per day for women (Bone Restore) - magnesium is included in this formula
4 capsules per day for men (Bone Restore)

6 tablets per day for women (Calcium Citrate) - no magnesium is included in this formula
4 tablets per day for men (Calcium Citrate)

Studies show minerals are better absorbed during sleep.

Extra Zinc - 25-50 mgs. per day.
Extra Vitamin C - 1,000-15,000 mgs. per day divided by three doses (this will make your total C intake 3,500 - 17,500 mgs. because of the approximate 2,500 mgs. in LEM).
Extra Chromium Polynicotinate - 200-500 mcg. (not mg.) per day.

It is best to take all of the above with food on your stomach, however, it is okay to take them on an empty stomach.  They are better absorbed into the body when consumed after eating at least 100 calories.

Most people report feeling better and having more energy once in this supplement program.  It is easy to understand why -- most people's bodies have never had this many tools to work with in these amounts.  You may have been exposed to many of these nutrients in the past but, most likely, not in therapeutic amounts.  For example, vitamin C does very little for you below 2,000 mg/day.  Once your intake reaches the 2,000 mg/day level, studies show a significant change in how the body responds to, for example:  joint strength, heart, and immune support.  The same applies to all the other nutrients in this formula.

Slowly Build Up With Consistency
Your body has to get used to the VMAAEHs (vitamins, minerals, amino acids, enzymes, and herbs) gradually.  It has never had this many tools (VMAAEHs) to work with before.  It needs time to sort them all out.  Compare the processes the body has to go through to your being introduced to forty plus new friends at a party one evening and being asked to get to know them all intimately by midnight.  Quite a challenge for most people.

Most VMAAEHs are water soluble.  Soon after you consume the supplements, you slowly lose them through respiration, sweat, defecation, and urination.  You can experiment for yourself.  Take 50 mg. of vitamin B2 and watch your urine turn bright yellow within the next hour.  A few hours later it will begin to fade.  The blood and other body parts absorb and utilize what they need and send the rest along the excretory organs as it continues its functions.  As you continue to take it throughout the day, your urine will maintain the bright yellow color.  Skip a dose or two and you will see it fade again.

Even though you are slowly losing them, certain amounts of each supplement remain in your body.  It is for this reason that you take them at least three times per day.  Some researchers even advocate four times per day to maintain a consistently high blood (serum) level and to keep your excretory organs healthy as well.  Our serum levels and body tissues eventually become saturated with each one.  If you forget a dose, your serum level drops somewhat.  If you forget two or more doses in a row, then drop even more drastically.

If you decide to discontinue use of any supplements for any reason, taper off gradually.  The body has to make metabolic adjustments just as it has to make the same adjustments as you are gradually increasing dosages.  For example, if you abruptly stop taking vitamin C (more than a gram per day), you may experience subclinical symptoms of scurvy.

Of Greater Performance
As you "supplement smart," you will most likely have positive experiences.  It is easy to understand why.  You now have access to the best nutritional tools backed by scientific evidence.  Our ancestors had access without scientific evidence through untampered food supplies.

Recommended Daily Allowances
The amounts of each supplement you will be consuming will be much greater than the Recommended Daily Allowances (RDAs).  The RDAs are set by the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB - an arm of our government).  The FNB ascertains these amounts mostly by seeing what is in our foods and concluding, that is the amount we need.  Actually, the RDAs are good for food manufacturers who like to boast that a serving of their food meets 100 percent of the RDAs of several vitamins and minerals.  The FNB does not recognize many supplements such as chromium, selenium, potassium, grape seed extract, choline, taurine, and the list goes on.  For example, they contend that 60 mg of vitamin C is sufficient to keep us healthy -- an assertion that is thrown into doubt based on the thousands of studies stating otherwise.

Let's Get Elemental
Minerals listed on almost all labels are combined with a compound that delivers or makes the mineral better absorbed into the body.  Among other micro-nutrients, the LEM label includes:

Mineral Elemental This amount is what most manufacturers will list without telling you the elemental % U.S. RDA
Magnesium oxide 342 mg 600 mgs 85
Magnesium aspartate 8.44 mgs 100 mgs 1.65
Magnesium glycinate 11.70 mgs 100 mg 2.90
Magnesium taurinate 15 mgs 100 mgs 3.75
Magnesium arginate 6 mgs 100 mgs 1.5

Most manufacturers do not tell you the elemental amount. They make it appear you are getting much more.  The same applies to most minerals across-the-board.  Studies show we need at least 300 mg of elemental magnesium per day.  You are within the 300 mg range when you combine Bone Assure with LEM.

Following my recommendations on page 77 and eating the foods covered in Section 1 will keep you safe from mineral deficiencies.

It's rare but some people may experience a "die-off" effect, also called the Herxheimer Reaction.  A die-off effect is caused by a rapid increase in volume of stored waste material (mercury, fomaldehyde, aluminum, cosmetics, etc.) and pathogens being brought into the lymph system due to the binding/cleansing action of several of the nutrients included in Life Extension Mix.  Reactions to the die-off effect can include fatigue, diarrhea, headaches, muscle and joint achiness, and flu-like symptoms.  These reactions are temporary and will pass once your body has expelled the circulating toxins.  If these detoxifying symptoms are too uncomfortable, reduce the amount of Life Extension Mix you consume temporarily.  Once your body is free of poisons, you will have achieved an important step in optimizing your health.  This is one of the reasons it is suggested you build-up to full menu (if you are starting out or have been off for awhile) as stated above.

Chapters 20-24 can be previewed here in the Table of Contents



Smart Exercise
The benefits of smart exercise are many.  New and old studies alike consistently reinforce the advantages of a smart exercise program.  Generally, the results of these studies show regular lifelong exercise increases life expectancy.  Most of us who exercise on a regular basis report feeling better, enjoy life more, and perform better at work and play.  Extreme variations in exercise habits as well as failure to exercise responsibly, however, may increase mortality.

Aerobic activities performed a minimum of three separate days per week provide us with many benefits.  It lowers triglyceride (blood fats) levels, raises good cholesterol, lowers bad cholesterol, lowers elevated blood pressure, helps to lower body fat levels, and increase your chance of survival if you have to flee from danger.

Aerobic exercisers need more free radical scavengers such as vitamin C (see page 84) because of the higher than normal consumption of oxygen.

Anaerobic activities, particularly weight training can make your tendons, ligaments, bones, and muscles stronger.  As a result, you will perform better athletically, catch yourself if you fall so you will not break bones (a major problem especially among the elderly).

The two forms of exercise that make up the smart exercise routine as mentioned above are:  Aerobic, meaning exercises that utilize the oxygen chemical system in your body, and anaerobic, meaning exercises that do not utilize the oxygen chemical system.  Aerobic exercises are heart, lung, and vascular healthy activities.  They include, but are not limited to, walking, jogging, stair climbing, rowing, aerobic dancing, and jumping rope.  Activities that make the large muscle groups of your body (legs and buttocks) move in a consistent and repetitive fashion are considered aerobic.  The result of this consistent and repetitive action causes the heart rate to elevate into the training or fat burning zone (see page 130) and keeps it there for a minimum of ten minutes.  You will eventually build up the amount of time you spend on your aerobic activity(s), depending on how many calories you want to burn for the day and/or week.  The chart on page 149 shows different activities that burn differing numbers of calories per hour.  So, if you spend twenty minutes on an activity, you will have to divide the number of calories for the activity by three.

There are many anaerobic activities.  They are not considered as beneficial to the heart, lung, and vascular system as aerobic activities.  You may think of them as "stop and go" activities.  They cause your heart rate to rise into or over your zone and, as quickly, during the stop or rest cycle, lower your heart rate to the bottom of, or below your zone. They include, but are not limited to, weight training, tennis, volleyball, softball, baseball, and interval training.  All are good activities because they burn calories over and above your BMR that you read about here.  The anaerobic activity that I encourage you to do more of than any other is weight training and/or any other progressive resistance (muscle building) exercise.  Remember, the more muscle on your frame, the higher your metabolic rate is every day, twenty-four hours a day.  You do not have to become a bodybuilder or power lifter to train with weights.  The weight training exercises that you are about to read about are ergonomic and time efficient.

What Time Of Day Should I Workout?
Are you a morning person or a night person?  You may hear from some that morning is the best time.  Some say that afternoon or evening is best.  I am partial with the afternoon and evening group primarily because I am a "night person."  Morning exercise does not set well with me.  I cherish early morning sleep.  Remember, the bottom line is calories in and calories out.

Aerobic/Cardiovascular Exercise
Let us first consider aerobic or cardiovascular activities.  The bottom line is to get your heart rate in your training and/or fat burning zone (page 130) and keep it there for at least ten minutes.  Eventually, as you get in better shape, you will be able to sustain the activity for twenty, thirty, or sixty minutes.  Those of you who have never exercised aerobically or have been away from exercise for a month or more should consider getting a medical clearance from a medical professional.

Smart exercise means to build up slowly.  As a result, you will avoid muscular and joint soreness.  Muscular and joint soreness is one of the main reasons people stop exercising or never start in the first place.

In general, many people are "turned off" to physical activities because they have been coaxed to "jump into it full speed" or were administered the "no pain, no gain" philosophy.  I still hear these foolish comments from supposed fitness experts, public school educators, or college fitness educators on a regular basis.  It is also very common to hear these same people use a fitness related activity as punishment or a manipulative tool ("give me five laps for talking in line," etc.).  It is no wonder the majority of Americans do not exercise.

Personal Trainers?
Hiring a personal trainer or checking out other books on lifting may be a good idea to show you variations, make sure your form is good, or just to show you new lifts.  Beware though, there are many unqualified trainers who can do more harm than good.  Anyone who looks "buff" and has taken a weekend crash course (typical in the personal training industry) is not necessarily qualified.  Look for someone who is personable with at least a bachelor's degree in some type of exercise science.

Beware of Trainers who:

  • Use and abuse you with the "no-pain, no-gain" philosophy.

  • Suggests swinging the weights or your body in any manner (or does it that way themselves).

  • Ask you to do any abdominal exercise that compromises your lower back such as sit-ups with straight legs or the exercise called "straight leg lifts." Crunches are fine if the thigh is perpendicular to the floor while lying on your back.  Abdominal exercises are generally a waste of your time and money as are any other individual muscular exercise.  Chances are, you want "the biggest bang for your buck."  For example: the lat pull-down works several muscle groups at one time including the abs.  It takes the same ten minutes to exercise four muscle groups as it does one.

  • Ask you to pick up anything via bending over rather than kneeling down.

  • Leave you unattended or frequently diverts their attention away from you during your training session.

  • Use negative reinforcement.

Variations on Weight Training Workouts
During the past couple of decades, I have experimented with almost every weight training method / routine known to man on myself and students / clients.  The main things I have discovered are:

  • Regardless of the training method you employ, your muscular strength, size, and speed of movement will eventually plateau.  Most people plateau after 6-12 months of consistently working out.

  • To grow beyond plateau, many athletes use creatine and whey protein.  Post plateau growth is the result of smart eating and supplementing combined with training.  Smart eats and supplements is more responsible for post plateau growth more so than new or different training methods.

  • Isolating a single muscle does not expedite growth in that muscle any faster than working that muscle in a lift that involves 2 or more muscles.  Example:  If correctly executed, the lift called "lat pull-down" or "lat pull" mainly works the forearms, biceps, abdominals, posterior deltoids, rhomboids, lats, and the teres group.  Including bicep curls in your lifting routine is not going to make your biceps grow any stronger or faster than just doing the lat pull along with others that involve the biceps.  In other words, stop wasting time in the gym!  Your biceps are getting maximum muscle building power from the multi-muscle lifts you utilize (such as lat-pull and bent row).  Work several muscle groups at the same time rather than isolating muscles for the same results.

  • According to research, lifting methods involving high-weight / low reps give us the best results concerning muscular strength, size, and speed of movement.  Example:  Once your body is acclimated, employ 4-6 reps of 3-4 sets of the maximum weight you can handle.  Inexperienced or beginners should slowly build-up -- see below.  Doing "super-sets" to failure, interval training, or any of the other methods people utilize, will not get you to your muscular goals any faster.

  • Allow your muscles 24 hours to recover from a lifting routine.  An effective and efficient routine would be to workout your upper body one day and lower body the next.  That way, you can lift everyday.  However, it is okay to skip a day occasionally.  Another possibility is to do full body one day, rest the next, and workout full body the day after the rest day, and so on.

  • Muscular definition has everything to do with body fat.  Example:  Subject A and B have the exact same muscle mass, strength, etc.  Subject A measures 20% body fat and weighs 200 lbs.  Subject B measures 10% body fat and weighs 175 lbs.  Subject B looks more muscular and defined than Subject A even though they have the same amount of muscle mass, strength, etc.  Ideally, bodybuilders want as much muscle as possible along with the least amount of body fat.  Fat bodybuilders do not win bodybuilding contests.  The muscle is there, you just can't see it when it is covered with fat.

Beginners and/or Weekend Athletes
If you are just starting out with weights, there is a "build-up" phase.  Build-up, in this context, means doing 1 set of eight to ten repetitions (reps) at each station with a weight that is relatively light to "your feel."  Reps are the process of repeating the same action over and over, in this case, eight to ten times.  A set is a group of the eight to ten reps.  Two sets of eight to ten reps are executed in this way:  Eight to ten reps, 1 minute or so rest period, then eight to ten more reps.  However, for the beginner, 1 set per muscle group is plenty until the next trip to the gym.  When returning to the gym, either add weight to your 1 set routine or (either/or situation) another set with the same weight you handled the time before and so on.  This seemingly slow process will be instrumental in lessening or eliminating muscular soreness and/or injuries.  After working up to 3-4 sets and once you are into it for a month to 6 weeks, you should be ready to enter the
high-weight / low reps routine mentioned above.

See pictures of the author in action.

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