Vitamin D May Cut Multiple Sclerosis Risk
The results of the study suggest vitamin D could be used to prevent thousands of cases of a serious, incurable illness, said the study's principal author, Alberto Ascherio, an associate professor of nutrition and epidemiology at the Harvard School of Public Health.
"But to know whether that's true or not, we need to do a large, controlled, randomized trial in which some people will get vitamin D and some people will not," Ascherio said.
The main source of vitamin D is the ultraviolet spectrum of sunlight, which stimulates the skin to produce the vitamin. Smaller amounts of the vitamin are found in oily fish such as salmon and in cod liver oil, egg yolks, liver and vitamin D supplements. Milk was fortified with vitamin D in the early 1900s, which ended endemic rickets.
Scientists first linked vitamin D deficiency to MS more than 30 years ago when they noticed that the disease was more prevalent in northern latitudes where sunlight is sparse during winter months. People who live in cities such as Chicago, Boston and New York basically manufacture no vitamin D from sunlight from December through February.
More recent animal studies have shown that vitamin D injections prevent MS from developing in mice, which can be induced in a laboratory setting to develop the myelin destruction characteristic of multiple sclerosis.
Vitamin D affects almost every type of tissue and is believed to play a major role in keeping the body's immune system on an even keel.
Some experts theorize that insufficient amounts of vitamin D may lead the immune system to malfunction in ways that allow it to attack the body's own tissue. Insufficient vitamin D is a factor in osteoporosis and also has been linked to an increased risk of canc, chronic pain, high blood pressure and other disorders.
The Harvard study adjusted for the geographic differences in sunlight exposure by comparing vitamin D levels among people living in the same latitudes. Between 1992 and 2004, 257 U.S. Army and Navy personnel received diagnoses of MS. The vitamin D content of their stored blood was compared to the levels in the blood of similar service personnel without MS living in the same latitudes.
The findings applied to white service personnel only, as sufficient data were not available for blacks and Hispanics.
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